Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte Trust Past

Napoleon's childhood and upbringing

Young Napoleon Trust Past

  • Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica in 1769. His family attained the rank of French nobility when France turned the island of Corsica into a state that year And Napoleon was sent to France in 1777 to study at the Royal Military School in Brenn.
  • In 1784, Napoleon spent a year studying at the Ecole Militaire in Paris Graduating with the rank of second lieutenant of artillery.
  • He was sent to Valens on a peacetime mission, and Napoleon spent time there educating himself in history and geography.

Napoleon's real beginning

Treaty of Campo Formio Trust Past

  • During the turbulent years of the French Revolution, Napoleon fought hard for the Republic, helping to defeat the British at Toulon. He was rewarded for his services there, and promoted to the rank of brigadier general.
  • After marrying Josephine de Boarnay, Napoleon took command of the French army in Italy, and after defeating the Austrians in 1797, he negotiated the Treaty of Campo Formio.
  • This victory gained great popularity for Napoleon when he returned to France. In order to get rid of Napoleon as a "potential rival", the French government of directors agreed to allow Napoleon to take the army in the campaign against Egypt to occupy Egypt and obstruct British naval shipments to India.
  • Napoleon's campaign in Egypt did not go as planned, and when Napoleon heard that the French government of directors was losing power, he abandoned his army and quickly returned to Paris to take advantage of this situation, becoming one of three rulers of the French Republic in the new government installed in 1799.

How Napoleon Bonaparte Became Emperor

The influence of the French Revolution on Napoleon Trust Past

  • He began his journey to power since 1793 After Louis XVI stepped down thanks to the French Revolution in 1789 And the first station Napoleon used to prove his military capabilities when he was appointed as one of the leaders on a military campaign directed to restore the French city of Toulon So he was able to restore it after developing a successful military plan And in 1795 he handed over the command of a military campaign and then received command of the French forces in Italy in 1796 And used the principle of rapid marches to maneuver Divide the enemy's forces And raise the morale of his army Which Within a year he gained control of most of Italy and part of Austria Subjecting it to the payment of money and goods to the French state.

Battle of the Nile Trust Past

  • Due to the efforts made by Napoleon in leading the French armies He was appointed in 1798 AD to lead a military campaign to Egypt So he seized the northern part of it But the army's supplies were cut off after the British defeated a French fleet in the Battle of the Nile So Napoleon took advantage of this by forming a team of scientists to study Egyptian antiquities Which helped to obtain a huge amount of archaeological information In addition to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone Which was the reason for deciphering the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs And in 1799 Bonaparte returned to France After the deterioration of the situation in it After France entered the war against Russia, Austria, Britain, and the Ottoman Empire, he led a military coup against the revolutions that broke out to overthrow the new government And succeeded in reaching power and became the first consul of France And thanks to Napoleon's leadership skills He was able to suppress the rebellion in France Restore the occupation of Italian lands Stop the war with countries and force them to make peace with France after the defeat of their armies And by 1802 the situation in France became stable.

Napoleon's Coronation Painting Trust Past

  • In 1804 He laid the foundation for much of Europe's legal system by creating the Napoleonic Law.In 1804 Napoleon was not convinced of the position of governor and crowned himself emperor in an expensive coronation ceremony.

Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition War Trust Past

  • Third Coalition War: This alliance included three countries, namely Austria, Portugal, and Russia, and these countries fought a series of wars against France, and Britain was a party to the wars, but it was not part of the alliance, and these wars began in 1803 AD, and ended with the victory of France in 1806 AD, where the Treaty of Pressburg was concluded, which stipulated the cession of Austria to France, so the war between the countries ended, but Britain continued to fight.

Battle of Austerlitz Trust Past

  • Battle of Austerlitz: This battle took place in 1805 between France and Austria, and ended with victory for France, and this battle is the most famous of Napoleon's military victories, as he faced under the leadership of 66 thousand French soldiers the 85 thousand Austrian forces, and was able to discover a weakness in the right side of the Austrian army, so he developed a plan to strike the army from it to make a gap in the center of the Austrian army and attack them from the center, which enabled him to divide the Austrians into two parts and thus weaken their unity and achieve victory.

The area of Trafalgar in Cádiz in the South of Spain where the battle took place Trust Past

  • Battle of Trafalgar: This naval battle took place in 1805 between France and Britain, and ended with the British victory and keeping France away from the invasion of Britain, and Pierre Villeneuve was the commander of the French fleet of 33 ships, who faced the British fleet of 27 ships by attacking them from the rear, but lost during the war 23 ships without dropping a single ship from the British fleet.
Fourth Coalition War Trust Past
  • Fourth Coalition War: This alliance consisted of four countries, namely Prussia, Russia, Sweden, and Britain, where these countries launched the war on France from 1806 AD until 1807 AD, but Napoleon was able to defeat the Prussian forces after 19 days of the formation of the alliance, in the Battle of Jena-Oersted, and he was also able to defeat the Russian forces in Friedland, which led to the collapse of the alliance, except for Britain, which remained in a war against Napoleon.

Napoleon's last years

Napoleon's surrender and exile Trust Past

  • The victory achieved by Napoleon in Eastern Europe enabled the recruitment of loyal individuals to positions of power in Naples, Sweden, the Netherlands, Italy, Westphalia, and Spain, but the national budget of France was collapsed after several defeats hit the French army, and after the exhausting military campaign launched by Napoleon on Russia in the winter in 1812, which began with more than 600 thousand soldiers, and ended with less than 10 thousand soldiers, and because of the weakness that hit France, there was an attempted coup against Napoleon's government when he was in The war with Russia, but failed, until British forces were able to invade France, which led to the surrender of Napoleon on March 30, 1814, and his exile to the island of Elba.

Napoleon's illness and death Trust Past

  • Napoleon was able to escape from his exile and return to Paris in 1815 And was able to obtain great support there and was able to regain his throne And was able to reorganize his army and government So he led his army there in a battle in which he defeated the Prussian forces in Belgium, but he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo Forcing him to give up his title and powers So he asked the victorious countries to appoint his son as emperor But his request was rejected And he was exiled to the island of St. Helena South Atlantic Where He was isolated from the outside world practicing reading and writing until he suffered a stomach ulcer or cancer in 1817 And died in exile on May 5, 1821 At the age of 51.

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