Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi

Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi

Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi Trust Past

Who is Saladin ?

Najm al-Din Ayyoub Trust Past

  • Al-Nasir Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi is Yusuf ibn Ayyub ibn Shazi ibn Marwan. Abu al-Muzaffar, King al-Nasir Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi is one of the most famous kings of Islam. 
  • His father and family were from Dwayen A village in Eastern Azerbaijan A descendant of the Kurdish Ruwadiyya Tribe.
  • Shazi had two sons: Ayyub and Shirkuh their father went to Tikrit Where Ayyub had a son named Yusuf And where his grandfather (Shazi) died.
  • In Tikrit took Ayoub -the father of Joseph- some business Then went out with his brother Sherkuh to Mosul and entered into the service of its owner Imad Al-Din Zengi and when king Imad al-Din Take ownership of a city Baalbek in 533AH He made Ayyub a ruler over it.
  • And after a while Imad al-Din was killed in the Castle Of Jabar in 541AH Ayyub and Shirkuh must serve his son Nur al-Din Mahmud The owner of Damascus and Aleppo, And they became close to him And they have a high place.
  • Ayyub is nicknamed Najm al-Din, Shirkuh is nicknamed Asad al-Din, and Yusuf is nicknamed Saladin

Two battles in Egypt

Asad al-Din Shirkuh Trust Past

  • In the year 558 AH, Saladin participated with his uncle Asad al-Din in a campaign directed by Nur al-Din to Egypt to rescue Shawar bin Mujir al-Saadi The minister of the Fatimid Patron against his opponent Dergham bin Amer al-Lakhmi, and the campaign performed its mission after a battle in which Dergham was killed and Shawar was returned to the Ministry that Dergham had snatched it from him. Asad al-Din and Saladin returned to Damascus

  • Soon, the Fatimid patron Appealed to Nur al-Din Mahmoud to save him from Shawar Who Tyrannized Power He send a second campaign led by Asad al-Din Shirkuh and with him his nephew Saladin And when the campaign entered Egypt Shawar ran away from them and try to escape and then they arrested and killed, Then Asad al-Din Imitated the Ministry, Then he died after a few months and took over after him his Nephew Yusuf and his title King Muzaffar Saladin took power and proceeded firmly.

The beginning of the Ayyubid State era

Nur al-Din Mahmoud son of Imad al-Din Zengi Trust Past

  • When the patron fell ill with the disease of his death, Saladin cut off the sermon from the patron and addressed the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'di B-Amr Allah Thus ending the rule of the Fatimid State and Saladin became the holder of power in Egypt. 

  • In 569AH died Nur al-Din Mahmoud son of Imad al-Din Zengi leaving the Succession to his son Al-Saleh Ismail And he was young Troubled matters of the Levantine Country and The Arabian Peninsula and invited Saladin to adjust. In 570 AH, he came to Damascus And its people received him warmly And then he seized Baalbek, Homs, Hama and Aleppo.
  • He then ceded Aleppo to the righteous King Ismail and went to two great works.

  • One is the internal reform in Egypt and the Levant And the second is to push back the raids of the Crusaders and attack their Fortresses and Castles in the Levant.

  • He began to build the Citadel of Egypt and established schools and Monuments there Then cut off from Egypt after his departure in 578AH As he followed the incidents of raids and repelling the Crusader attacks in the Levantine Lands So he occupied the rest of his life, 

  • Saladin condemned the country from the last borders of Nubia in the south and Cyrenaica in the west to the country of the Armenians in the north and the country of the Island and Mosul in the east.

Causes of the Battle of Hattin

Renaud de Chatillon Trust Past

  • Saladin's Military Ability was manifested in that military plan, which he followed in his Jihad against the Crusaders To recover Jerusalem And that plan was based on the formation of a Unified Islamic Front Which includes Egypt and The Levant And parts of Iraq And then fighting the Crusaders in their own backyard And inflicting a Strong Blow on them As happened in the Battle of Hattin.
  • This was followed by his march to the Cities of the Levantine Coast to weaken the Crusaders Financially and Morally.
  • If Saladin had gone to Jerusalem after his victory in Hittin, he would have been able to enter it effortlessly, but his capture of Jerusalem before taking control of the Coastal Cities would not guarantee him complete Stability in Jerusalem As it was expected that the European West would send the Crusader armies to the ports of the Levant, and the coming of his knights and enter with Saladin in fierce battles to recover Jerusalem Which contains the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

  • On the other hand, Saladin summoned the Egyptian Forces while he was capturing the coast to help him capture the southern cities and castles, and met his son King Aziz Uthman in Ashkelon.

  • Arnat or Renaud de Chatillon was very Barbaric against Muslims and Christians in Jerusalem And he was Shedding Blood and his soldiers violated the honor of women

  • Arnat the owner of Karak cut off the path of a large caravan that was carrying enormous wealth And was moving from Cairo heading to Damascus In late 1186 AD, and early 1187 And despite the fact that the caravan was fortified with Soldiers he managed it, and Robbed what was in it and Captured its men.

  • He sent Saladin to Arnat Threatening him to Release Prisoners and money But he refrained and addressed the Messengers of Saladin Rudely, saying: Tell Muhammad save you (meaning the Messenger of God Muhammad peace be upon him) so that the King of Jerusalem Jay Lusignan felt the seriousness of the matter, and addressed him to release the prisoners, but he refused, Saladin had nothing but Retribution And fight the battle to rid the Arab countries of the rule of the Crusaders.

Battle of Hattin 1187

Battle of Hattin 1187 Trust Past

  • Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi began to equip the army of Muslims And he had United Egypt The Levant, Iraq, and The Arabian Peninsula And gathered them under his banner to confront the Crusaders And his plan was based on luring them away from their fortresses So he burned Tiberias And implemented his plan until they came together with the Greatest Cross Headed by the King of Jerusalem And they were fifty thousand fighters So they marched to him in a Barren and Rugged Land So they suffered from fatigue, heat, and thirst And the Muslim Armies were attacking them in an attempt to weaken them, and then withdraw quickly before giving them a chance to dock with armies Muslims.

  • The Camp of Muslims on the Hills of Hittin waiting for the arrival of the army of the Crusaders And when they reached the Plateau Saladin surrounded them with his army, and prevented them from water, and the Muslims burned the lands covered with thorns, and the wind was towards the Crusaders, so it carried them Fire and Smeok.

  • The Muslim army began to attack and fight the Crusaders So they met with heat, thirst, smoke, and fighting the Muslims So the Crusaders tried to defend themselves But the Muslim army was strong So they tried to set up their tents So the Muslims prevented them from doing so And they took their greatest cross from them So it was severe on them, and they only wanted Salvation.

  • So they dismounted from their animals and sat on the ground So the Muslims climbed up to them removed their king's Tent And captured them Then Salahuddin went to his tent and brought The king Of The Crusaders and drank water for him, as well as Renaud de Chatillon The owner of Karak then he killed him himself after Renaud de Chatillon insisted on his duel.

Europe wants revenge

King of England «Richard the Lionheart» Trust Past

  • The Crusaders did not sleep, but equipped their armies in Europe and returned the Third Crusade In which the Emperor of Germany «Frederick» and the King of France «Philip Augustus» and the King of England «Richard the Lionheart» and besieged the city of Acre And Saladin tried to besiege the Crusaders from the outside What they received from the dignified treatment after the battle of «Hattin» in which Saladin won, and here the Crusaders retreated and did not advance after «Acre» and Saladin defeated the Armies of the Entire Europe and their kings returned to their country.

Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi's Death

Al-Nasir Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi Trust Past

  • Richard returned to his country and Saladin left Jerusalem after building schools and hospitals there And then stayed in Damascus for a short period that ended with His Death.

  • In addition to his Prestige Saladin was Soft-Hearted Despite his Heroism He was a Man Of Politics And War Far-Sighted, Humble with his army and the Princes Of His Army.
  • Those close to him felt Love mixed with his prestige.
  • He has a good knowledge of the Hadith, Jurisprudence and Literature Especially the Genealogies of the Arabs and their facts He did not save money or real estate for himself, and the Period of his Rule in Egypt was 24 years and in Syria 19 years, and he left behind 17 children male and one female.

  • Salah al-Din died in the Citadel of Damascus at the age of 57 And voices in the country rose to Tears.
  • People Pledged Allegiance to his son Al-Afdal Nur al-Din Ali after him And he was his Deputy Over Damascus.

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