King Muzaffar Saif Al-Din Qutuz

King Muzaffar Saif Al-Din Qutuz

King Muzaffar Saif Al-Din Qutuz

Muhammad bin Khwarizm Shah Teksh

  • Sultan Al-Khwarizmi "Muhammad bin Khwarizm Shah Teksh" owner of a strong kingdom adjacent to the borders of the Seljuks and Abbasids and was at enmity with the Abbasid Caliph "Abu Al-Abbas Ahmed Al-Nasir Li Din Allah", and prepared a huge army to attack the capital Baghdad.

  • At that time, "Genghis Khan" Khaqan the Mongols were seeking to open trade relations with him, but "Teksh" refused, and in 1218 AD a small group of Mongols crossed the borders of the Khwarizmites, they were chasing a fugitive military commander and tension began to increase on the border, at the same time a delegation of merchants from the Muslim Mongols arrived in the city of Ottar, but they were arrested on charges of espionage and confiscated their goods and most of them were arrested and killed a little and the rest escaped.

  • At the same time, Baghdad received news of the move of "Teksh" against "Abu al-Abbas".

Eliminate Teksh and the Khwarizm state

Muhammad bin Khwarizm Shah Teksh and the Khwarizm state

  • Genghis Khan learned about the killing of merchants, so he asked to hand over the ruler of the city to him, but Teksh refused.
  • He controlled the territory beyond the river and seized the ancient cities of Bukhara and Samarkand and entered Iran and besieged the capital, Urganda, until it collapsed. Then Genghis Khan sent 20,000 of his cavalry to ask for the head of Teksh.
  • The Shah fled and moved from city to city, from land to land, and from state to state, his forces falling heavily, and he was pursued, finding no place to accommodate him, as if the whole universe rejected him, and behind him thousands of killers, carrying out what Genghis Khan told them: "Bring me the Khwarazm Shah wherever he is, even if he clings to the sky."
  • Teksh's plan succeeded in his frightened escape, and all his forces dispersed from him, and he remained alone on an unknown island in the middle of the Caspian Sea, and there he was content to stay in an old castle that was deserted on the shore of the island. He lived in extreme poverty and a difficult life, and here he is, "Muhammad bin Khwarizm Shah Teksh" escaping from death to death. The same thing, because after a few days he died in the deserted remote castle of Al-Jazeera, and historians differed about the fate of his body, some of them said that he was not buried, and some of them said that they found him in his condition, so they shrouded him in the bed on which he was sleeping and buried him in his place, and his page was folded, and it was confirmed that his death was in the year 1220 AD.
  • No one knows the exact fate of the Shah's family. Most of the narrators confirmed that the women of his house were killed while fleeing, and there are those who said that they were arrested.
  • However, there is confirmed information about the survival of 3 of his children, in addition to his nephew.
 Browse Genghis Khan article to understand what happened

Jalal Aldin Bin Muhammad Bin Khwarizm Shah

Genghis Khan

  • The Shah recommended those close to him for the duration of the escape that his kingdom remains for his heir, his son "Jalal al-Din" and the heir to his throne, who bore responsibility in very harsh circumstances, whose state consisted of separate cities, but the Mongols completed their invasion of the state and committed atrocities against the peaceful people and exterminated hundreds of thousands of them, and after that they besieged The city of Khwarazm for 5 months until it also fell, so they killed all its people and opened the dams of the Jihon River and flooded the city.
  • When the Mongols tried to attack it, Jalal al-Din surprised them with a lightning attack in the year 1221 AD. He defeated them, dispersed them, broke their power, and dispersed them. Jalal al-Din's victory increased his confidence in restoring his kingdom, and he actually attacked and recovered the country.
  • During those battles, Sultan Jalal al-Din's supporter was his sister's husband and his cousin, Prince Mamdud bin Khwarazm shah, and the Sultan's wife and his two sisters were pregnant, and he was born Prince "Mahmoud" and Princess "Jihad" Shah Khwazm shah. And Prince Mahmoud is the son of Prince Mamdoud.

The End Of Jalal Al-Din

Sultan Jalal al-Din Khwarazm shah

  • Prince Mamdur Al-Khwarizmi participated with Jalal al-Din in his fight against the Mongols, they won in many locations until he was killed at the beginning of the Mongol Khwarazm wars and returned carrying on his armor and shrouded in war clothes leaving behind his righteous wife and a boy in the cradle.

  • After Genghis Khan's death, his son Oktay took the throne, and the young son was supposed to remain in the position of khan, but he was killed.

  • Tully was captured in one of the battles of the Khwarazmic war with Sultan Jalal al-Din so he decided to cut the neck of Tuli bin Genghis khan and the one who killed him was his nephew the little prince Mahmoud bin Mamdoud who became Sultan Qutuz later.

  • After the defeat of Jalal al-Din, his forces dispersed around him until he was killed, and his fate was similar to that of his father.

  • Circumstances led Prince Mahmoud or Qutuz to become a slave sold and bought in the slave markets.

Mamluk Mahmoud, not the prince

King Muzaffar Saif Al-Din Qutuz

  • Prince Mahmoud grew up and got to know the Sheikh of Islam Al-Ezz bin Abdul Salam and then he followed the good king Najm al-Din Ayoub the owner of Egypt to fall under his kingdoms and entrusted him to Prince Ezzedine Aybak

  • Sultan Al-Saleh Najm al-Din Ayyub died in 647 AH while heading to fight King Louis IX the leader of the Seventh Crusade so he took over the leadership of the army more than one commander, including Baybars, Qutuz and Aktay the commander of the army and Aybak as well.
  • It was a strong epic managed by Queen Shajarat al-Durr victory was achieved in the Battle of Mansoura

  • Prince Turan Shah succeeded his father but was killed only four months after he took power.
  • A big political vacuum occurred after his death because there was no Ayyubid qualified to lead the state. At that time, Shajarat Al-Durr in cooperation with the Mamluks declared itself ruling Egypt but rejection spread throughout the Islamic world.
  • After hearing the news Ezzedine Aybak married and abdicated power to him and he became the first Mamluk Sultans of Egypt.

 Browse Shajarat al-Durr article to understand what happened

Invasion and destruction of Baghdad

Invasion and destruction of Baghdad

  • On February 10, 1258, the great tragedy occurred, "the fall of Baghdad or the siege of Baghdad or the Mongol invasion of Baghdad", this is how I have known in history books, the more general term is "the catastrophe of Baghdad".

  • Commissioned by the Great Qaghan Mengo Khan, who asked his brother Hulagu to complete the Mongol expansions in Southwest Asia.

  • The expansions that were initiated by their grandfather the Great Qaghan Genghis Khan, which was done by Hulegu, his army was able to storm Baghdad after besieging it for 12 days destroying it and exterminating most of its inhabitants An invasion that is the ugliest in the history of humanity They invaded the Abbasid Caliphate and committed the most heinous massacres and killed the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim Billah The foolish Caliph who calmed them down and gave them money and gifts and was greedy to marry a son to Hulagu's daughter

  • On February 14, 1258 AD, the Mongols swept the roads of Baghdad and destroyed them and killed all they encountered, looted and burned everything they encountered, the Mongols invaded Baghdad for 40 days, leaning on the country and killing all those who could afford it, including men, women, newborns, sheikhs, adults and young men.

  • They used to slaughter the man, insult whomever he chose, his daughters and maidservants, rape them in the streets, kill them, and mutilate with their bodies. A few of them survived, and most of them were among those who hid in wells, sewer canals and dirt. Some people hid in bars and shops and closed the doors on themselves. The Mongol military used to break the doors and demolish the walls or burn them, and break into those places and kill those in them. Some of these people tried to take cover on the roofs of houses. The Mongols used to go up behind them and slaughter them, so their blood would flow in the gutters until the alleys drowned. And the dialogues and dyeing the roads in deep red.
  • The Mongols burned books of science and literature and were said to have used them as a bridge to cross the river.

Mongol March Towards Levant Countries

Mongol March Towards Levant Countries

  • The Mongols completed their march on the Levant and the Levantine people began to travel to the south, intending to take refuge in Egypt, the house of security and safety, and the Mongol armies came to the Levant, and Sultan Al-Nasir Yusuf received a message from Hulagu in which he was: If you stand on this book of mine, hurry up with your men, money and knights to obey the Sultan of the land, Shahanshah, Roy Zameen, secure his evil and obtain his good and do not hinder our messengers with you as our messengers were hindered before We have been informed that the merchants of the Levant and others fled with their money and women to Egypt, if they were In the mountains we blew it up, and if they were in the ground we blew it up.
  • This terrifying message took off the heart of Sultan Al-Nasser Yusuf from talking and sent his women to Karak at King Omar Al-Moghith.

  • The Mongols preferred to approach Aleppo and entered into battles with the Levantine soldiers who went out to fight them and the Mongols exterminated everyone who fought them tens of thousands were martyred in separate continuous battles.

  • The Mongols destroyed the city walls so that the resistance could lose its effectiveness, but the citadel of Aleppo did not surrender and Hulagu struck it by force until he captured it on January 25, 1260 AD, and destroyed it and all the walls of Aleppo, its mosques and orchards.

The Beginning of the Mongol March Towards Egypt

Kitbugha, commander of the Tatar army

  • Hulagu allowed King Turan Shah to leave Aleppo without being subjected to him because he was old and his release could only be for political purposes or as propaganda for his military campaign.
  • In any case, Turan Shah died days after the fall of Aleppo and after nearly 3 years of the rule of Nur al-Din Ali ibn Aybak in Egypt, the drums of the Tatar wars began to echo on the borders of Egypt, and the winds of the Tatar invasion approached the Levant and Egypt, and the boy Sultan Nour al-Din Ali could do nothing In the face of the imminent danger of the Tatars, and the little Sultan was a reckless boy who used to spend his time riding donkeys, strolling in the castle, playing in the bathroom with the servants, and fighting with the slave girls And whoever was actually ruling the country was the deputy of the Sultanate Saif al-Din Qutuz or primce mamhoud and with every new news that was reported about the brutality of the Mongols, the conditions in Egypt were With the hordes of enemy armies approaching the Levant, the distress of King Al-Nasir reached Egypt.

The overthrow of the little Sultan

Sultun Al-Mansur Nur al-Din Ali

  • The princes gathered in the Citadel of the Mountain at the court of  Sultun Al-Mansur Nur al-Din Ali in the Citadel of the Mountain. Qutuz said to the princes: The situation requires a strong sultan capable of confronting the Mongol enemy, and that King Al-Mansur Ali was a young boy unable to rule the kingdom. Ali, and his mother ruled him and interfered in the affairs of the Sultanate
  • The meeting was attended by senior scholars and judges, such as Chief Judges Badr al-Din Hasan al-Sinjari and Sheikh al-Izz ibn Abd al-Salam, and they agreed on the need for a compelling sultan to fight this enemy.

  • On March 1, 1260, Damascus fell to the Mongols, led by Kutubgha Khan, who was appointed by Hulagu as his deputy from the Levant.
  • The ruler of Damascus, King Al-Nasir Yusuf Al-Ayyubi, fled from the city to Gaza, the people of Damascus preferred to surrender for fear of a fate similar to Aleppo, in which the Mongols committed horrific massacres, so the Mongols entered the city without a fight, except for the castle, which continued to resist.

  • It was an unequal battle in any way fell under the blows of the catapult and destroyed towers and fortresses and was executed all its garrison and although the Mongols wreaked havoc in Damascus, but it was not destroyed as Baghdad and Aleppo suffered after their fall in the hands of Hulagu.

  • The fall of Damascus was the end of Ayyubid rule in the Levant. He did not remain steadfast in the entire Islamic world except Egypt.
  •  In Egypt, the throne was in the wind, and the small sultan, with his actions, made the country greedy for anyone, let alone the Mongols.
  • Qutuz said his famous saying " I feel that the mighty of the heavens has prepared me to face the mighty of the earth ".

  • But the obstacle was the throne.
  • Qutuz arranged to depose Sultan Al-Mansur Ali.

  • Qutuz helped to reach his goal that the disadvantages of Sultan Al-Mansur were unbearable, so everyone around him broke up he indulged in amusement and his mother controlled him, so things became more and more troubled.
  • Qutuz took the appropriate opportunity when the princes of  The Mamluks of Bahri and Al-Mu'izza went on a fishing trip in the Abbasiya area in the East, headed by Prince Saif al-Din Bahadur and Prince Alam al-Din Sanjar al-Ghatmi.

  • Qutuz arrested Sultan Al-Mansur Ali and his brother Qaqan and their mother and arrested them in one of the towers of the castle and on this day ended the period of rule of Sultan Al-Mansur Ali, which lasted two years and 8 months and when the Mamluks returned from the hunting trip entered Saif al-Din Bahadur and Alam al-Din Sanjar on Qutuz and told him that they are against what he has done.

  • So he informed them of the danger of the Tatars coming to Egypt, and he said to them: I only meant that we gather to fight the Tatars, and this does not come without a king, so if we go out and defeat this enemy, then the matter is yours in the Sultanate after that.

  • The Mamluks accepted the fait accompli, and indeed Qutuz Sultan was installed after the princes promised to resign after the victory over the Mongols.

Turning Point

Hulagu, the leader of the Tatars

  • The Tatar road became paved for the invasion and overthrow of Egypt after the Tatars looted all of the Levant and invaded it and exterminated its people until they reached Gaza and resolved to enter the Egyptian lands.

  • During the preparation of the campaign, Hulagu was forced to withdraw most of his army and returned to Ilkhanid Persia due to the turmoil in the capital due to the death of his brother the Great Khan Monco Khan in China and his other brothers Kublai and Arik Boca disputed the mandate of the throne.

  • His other brothers, Kublai Khan, and Bucca were in contention for the throne, but Hulagu went to the capital to nominate Kublai as a greater Khan, especially with the threat posed by his cousin Baraka Khan, who ruled the Golden Horde in Kabjak. Hulagu vowed to take revenge because of all the massacres of Muslims that occurred at the hands of Hulagu and dared to establish the caliphate and kill the Caliph Al-Musta'sim Billah. After the withdrawal of the vast majority of the Tatar armies, the army commander remained Kutbagha and under his command 2 domains, which means about 20 to 30 thousand Fighter.

  • As a Christian, Kutubgha tried to ally with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, but another divine estimate came and his nephew was killed in the city of Sidon, by the Templar group, so he attacked the Crusaders in the city and destroyed it.

  • What he did was the biggest mistake in his entire life, because instead of gaining the friendship of the Crusaders, he gained unnecessary animosity.

Tatar messengers

Hanging the heads of the Tatar messengers on Bab Zuweila

  • The situation in Egypt when the Tatars approached it was very tense, full of turmoil, severe crises, and strife resulting from the struggle for the throne. Although Qutuz settled on the throne, there are many greedy for the chair, and the haters against it personally are more. Strife exists between the Bahri Mamluks and the Moazi Mamluks. However, relations were completely torn between Egypt and its neighbors. There is an economic crisis that the country is going through because it is drained from the costs of facing the successive crusades.

  • At a time when Seif El-Din Qutuz was busy preparing the army, a message came from Hulegu carrying four Tatar messengers. The message was an explicit declaration of war or handing Egypt over to the Tatars

  • Qutuz held a council that included senior princes, leaders and ministers to discuss the matter of responding to the message of the Tatar was Qutuz determined to fight the war and rejected the principle of delivery at a time when some princes hesitated to accept the opinion of Qutuz said Qutuz angry " his famous saying: "I threw the Tatars myself" "Who to Islam if not we?!"

  • Then he ordered a military parade for the Egyptian army divisions and headed on the desert road and ended at Bab Zuweila and killed the Tatar messengers and hung their heads on Bab Zuweila, which to this day is a witness to this great history.

Sheikh Al-Izz bin Abdul Salam

Sheikh Al-Izz bin Abdul Salam

  • When Sultan Qutuz took the reins of power in Egypt, he wanted to collect money from the people to equip the army, so he asked for a fatwa from Sheikh Al-Izz bin Abdul Salam, but the Sheikh refused to favor the Sultan in the religion of God.
  • He told him that he must first collect the gold and jewelry of the Mamluk princes so that only their weapons and horses remain with them with which they will fight, and then the princes will become at the same level as the common people, only then can he take that fatwa.
  • And actually implemented Sultan Muzaffar Saif al-Din Qutuz what he said Sheikh, and was equipped with all the army money obtained from the sale of jewelry princes, then stood Sheikh hero Izz bin Abdul Salam in the mosques of Egypt guarded urges people to jihad and reminds them of the stories of the Companions and the righteous predecessors.
  • Sheikh Ibn Abd al-Salam was able to plant the spirit of victory again in the hearts of Egyptians, and the Sheikh himself went out to the arena of jihad to gain the honor of defeating the Tatars from the Nation of Islam, so that Muslims won the eternal Battle of Ain Jalut thanks to men like him.

Army of Egypt

The Egyptian army was led by the Mamluks

  • Qutuz came out with the army of Egypt to meet the Tatars in Palestine instead of waiting in Egypt and objected to most of the leaders on his opinion and preferred to wait in Egypt to defend it, but Qutuz insisted on his opinion because it is better militarily and psychologically and it is better that they have the element of surprise and choose the date and place of the battle.

  • Qutuz came out with the army of Egypt, consisting of Egyptians, not the Mamluks, as some claim, and you must know that the average population of Egypt in the Mamluk era was about 3 million people and in Cairo only about 600 thousand, and the first Mamluk class for another consists of 6 thousand to 10 thousand, including the Sultan and the deputy Sultan and Atabek military.

  • Then comes the class of princes and headed by the princes of the centenarians of thousands, the largest ranks in the country, each prince under the command of about 100 knights and the powers of each one to lead a thousand soldiers after them princes Tabalkhanah and under each of them about 40 knights and then the princes of dozens who were under the hands of each of them between 10 and 20 knights, unlike the princes of the fives.

Battle of Ain Jalut 1260 AD

Battle of Ain Jalut 1260 AD

  • After 5 months of preparation, preparation and training, Qutuz directed his army to Sinai, then left the Salihiya area. Qutuz placed a relatively large squad at the forefront of the army, led by Baybars.

  • One day in August of the year 1260 A.D., Qutuz, preceded by his commander Baybars Al-Bunduqdari, went out to reveal the news of the Mongols, So Baybars' squadron confronted the vanguard of the Mongol soldiers in an area near Gaza.

  • Then Qutuz headed to Gaza City and from there via the coast to northern Palestine, and chose Katbugha that he was heading to fight them, so he gathered his army and set out towards the Muslim army.
  • Meanwhile, one of his servants entered the sultan to tell him that there was a man he wanted to meet and informed him that he is a messenger from Prince Sarim al-Din Aybak, and he is one of the Muslim princes who were captured by Hulagu when he invaded the Levant, and after that he accepted service in the ranks of the Tatar army and participated with them in different locations and became under the leadership of Katbugha until they arrived at the plain of Ain Jalut and conveyed the messenger to Sultan Saif al-Din Qutuz Several important points changed his view of the confrontation.

  • First, Qutuz knew that the Tatar army was not with its usual strength after Hulagu withdrew and took with him most of the commanders and soldiers, and the remaining army is not with the same strength and courage with which he invaded Baghdad and the Levant, and secondly, he put his hand on the strengths and weaknesses of the Tatar army.

  • And after the dawn prayer on the morning of September 3, 1260 AD, the flames rose from the torches and lit the plain of Ain Jalut, and the Muslim army lined up behind the hills of Ain Jalut under the leadership of King Al-Muzaffar Saifuddin Qutuz after his forces were stationed between the hills of the Ain Jalut plain.
  • Baibars entered with some of his few soldiers the passage between the hills of Ain Jalut and Katbugha and his soldiers on the other side of the corridor When he saw this meager battalion he thought that it was the whole Egyptian army so he wanted to end this war in a short time and head to Egypt quickly so he threw all his soldiers rushing in force and brutality towards Baibars and those with him and as soon as the Tatar armies reached the middle of the corridor until Baibars withdrew and pretended to be afraid of the armies The Tatars until the front of the Tatar armies reached the end of the corridor and the narrow corridor was filled with Tatar armies until they found the Egyptian army waiting for them at the end of the corridor and the two armies clashed then the Egyptian army forces led by the Mamluk princes started to descend from the top of the hills of Ain Jalut in speed and anger and they were all saying out loud the word "God is great" "Allahu Akbar".
  • It was the first time that Katbugha saw the Muslim army in this image, he used to see them behind fortresses and castles trembling and terrified, or to see them rushing to escape in terror from the Tatar army, or to see them surrendering their necks to the servile slaughter with Tatar swords!!.. He was used to seeing Muslims in one of these humiliating pictures, but to see them in this majestic and dear body is what he never reckoned with.
  • Under the gaze of Katbugha, the first viceroy of the Mughal king, Hulagu, grandson of the legendary king Genghis Khan terrified, and under the glare of the sun, the Mamluk battalions followed the descent. The descent was in several stages, and each battalion had a different color from the rest of the battalions. The first battalion to be shot down was the battalion of Commander Sanqur al-Rumi.

  • And here was King Al-Muzaffar Qutuz standing tall on the back of his horse, watching his army as they descended into the field and how Kitbugha was deceived by the front of the Islamic army led by Baybars Al-Bunduqdari.

The victory polluted by heartbreak, brokenness and treachery

Princess Julnar or Jihad

  • When the fighting intensified and in the middle of the battle, Qutuz (formerly Prince Mahmoud) was fighting with all his ferocity, and when he found a masked commander next to him, he was fighting beside him. When Qutuz revealed the face of the masked leader, He found that this leader is his wife Jihad.

  • Yes, Jihad, his uncle's daughter. Circumstances wanted them to meet again before the decisive battle and get married after they spent their lives as slaves. Jihad had insisted on going to the battle despite Qutz's disapproval, but she went because she wanted to take revenge on those who displaced her while she was a queen and killed her family.

  • And she said while taking her last breath, "Protect yourself, O Sultan of the Muslims, here I am, and I have preceded you to heaven".

  • The Sultan carried his wife to one of the tents and kept screaming loudly to find any medic for his wife  "jihad", but to no avail, so he cried until the blood of the Tatar soldiers covering his face mixed with his abundant tears.

  • Qutuz went out to complete the fight with all his brutality, and the fighting raged in the plain of Ain Jalut, and a deadly arrow came towards Qutuz, so he missed him, wounded his horse, and killed the horse.
  • And tilted the scale in favor of Muslims, and most of the Tatar soldiers began fleeing from the hell of the narrow corridor that the Muslim army set up for them, but Katbugha and few soldiers did not agree to withdraw, and he said: “There is no escape from death here. Death with pride and honor is better than escaping with humiliation".
  • Indeed, Katbugha was killed by one of the Mamluk princes, and his name was "Jamal al-Din Aqush al-Shamsi" and Kitbugha's son was captured, and when Qutz asked him, did your father flee ? He replied that his father could never escape from the field of battle, so some soldiers went to sort the bodies, and indeed they found Katbugha among the dead bodies, and the Muslims were victorious in the battle of Ain Jalut.
  • The Egyptian army chased the Tatars, even from one city to another, until the Tatars were able to unite their ranks again at Bisan, south of Anatolia, which is about 20 kilometers from Ain Jalut, and the Muslim army withstood in Bisan battle that was classified as fiercer than the battle of Ain Jalut, and the Egyptian army prevailed.
  • Indeed, the battle of Ain Jalut was the beginning of the end of the barbaric Tatar empire that terrified the world, and this tragedy ended with the birth of a strong Islamic state, the Mamluk state, the incubator of the Islamic caliphate in Egypt and its capital, Cairo, that flourished for 3 centuries.
  • When the army commanders arrived at Hulagu in Iran and learned what happened to them, he ordered to cut off all of their heads. Hulagu was unable to prepare another army, but all his armies withdrew from the Levant, Palestine, Aleppo and all the countries they occupied, because of what the Mongolian state witnessed. Violent unrest between the tribes, which was the only grandfather of Hulagu Genghis Khan, and this was after his cousin Baraka Khan, the leader of the Golden Horde, defected.
  • After that, Hulagu suffered from epilepsy and died in 1265 AD.

King Muzaffar Qutuz Treacherously Killed

Rukn al-Din al-Zahir Baybars al-Bunduqdari

  • The Sultan of Egypt, Saif al-Din Qutuz, fifty days after he led the Egyptian army in the immortal Ain Jalut, and after he entered the Levant, he decided that he would return to the homeland of Egypt as soon as possible Especially since he felt that there was a conspiracy being hatched against him by the Bahri Mamluks led by Baibars.
  • He did not feel safe in the Levant and decided to return to Egypt On the way to Egypt, the sultan, who is known for his love of hunting, saw a rabbit in the Qusayr area.

  • He tried to catch a rabbit, as the Egyptian army preceded him and headed for Salhia And only a very few of his princes were left with him, including all the plotters.

  • The important thing is that the Sultan kept running after the rabbit and with him the princes Prince Izz al-Din Anas was able to hunt the rabbit So the Sultan was very happy and said to him Ask what you want and I will give it to you when we enter Egypt.
  • Prince Izz al-Din Anas replied to him I want The slave girl that the Sultan took from the Tatar captivity

  • She was a beautiful slave girl who was with the Mongols and was taken by the Egyptians as a slave girl
  • the Sultan laughed in good faith and said This is for you and I will give you her dowry.

  • The important thing is that Prince Izz al-Din Anas pretended that he was thanking the Sultan and would kiss his hand, then he grabbed his sword, and this was the signal between the conspiring princes.
  • So Baybars hit the Sultan with a sword, and after him the Prince Baktoot Al-Jokandar struck him under his neck, then Izz al-Din Anas attacked the Sultan and threw him from above his horse The conqueror of the Mongols, the Sultan, continued to bleed from all parts of his body, until a prince named Bahadur Al-Moezzi struck him with an arrow, so the pure soul of the Sultan moved to the afterlife, away from the worldly life that was full of treachery and betrayal.
  • The reasons for the princes killing their sultan revolved between two reasons.

  1. The first reason is in revenge for their original master, Saif Aldin Aktay Aljamdar, Bebars is fully convinced that Qutuz participated in a conspiracy to kill him.
  2. The second reason is Qutuz did not assign the Emirate of Aleppo to Bebars.

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