The War of 1812

The War of 1812

War of 1812

  • If this technology of telephones or e-mails had been available in 1812, the world would have avoided a war that lasted two and a half years, but if the United States and Britain had had a "telegraph" connection, it might have saved the lives of about 1,600 British soldiers and about 2,300 American soldiers.

  • Two days before the outbreak of the war, Britain announced the approval of All American demands, but this news did not reach the ears of the United States in time, so in June 1812 the United States declared war. 

  • One of the reasons for this war was the trade restrictions imposed by Britain on the United States during the first war with France, then forcing American sailors to serve in the British Navy, then increasing British harassment of American ships, and the last thing that was hit was an American ship and killed three of its crew.

  • These reasons were accompanied by an American desire to stop British support for Indian tribes opposed to American expansion, and above all by the desire of the United States to annex what it could from the great kingdom if it defeated it in the war.

Making a War Decision

US President James Madison

  • US President "James Madison" saw that America is still too young to fight such a war, but he was forced to put the matter to the US Congress, and the majority agreed to go to war. 

  • He was prompted to this by the" war hawks", a group of Radical Republicans who were able to coalesce and gain access to the Houses of Representatives.

  • Neither side was ready for this war, neither Britain, preoccupied with its war with "Napoleon Bonaparte", nor the United States could not find enough soldiers. 

  • The Americans preferred to fight in militias rather than a regular army, and the militia either consisted of enthusiastic juniors or elders who lacked the arts of war.

  •  Also, the stubbornness of the "Republicans" in 1811 and their insistence on not renewing the American bank was the reason for the inflation of the American currency, which meant the loss of sources of financing for that war, but the Republicans ' insistence was higher than all, so 12 American ships were forced to confront 800 British ships and the two sides fought the war and the results of the "war of independence" stuck in their minds then the American South.

End of the Redskins Threat

Major General Andrew Jackson

  • The Sea War was a saga and in the American South the Americans managed to defeat the pro-British Indians, but the British managed to occupy "New Orleans".

  • At first, the British relied on defense because they were busy fighting Napoleon, while the Americans chose to attack, but the British defense was impregnable.

  • The United States was only able to take control of Lake "Erie", and that was in 1813, and "Western Ontario", the Americans have had enough of it, as it destroys the dream of the Indians to create their own state forever.

  • In April 1814, Napoleon was defeated. At the same time, the British chose to switch from defense to attack, so they sent 15 thousand soldiers to North America and in the southwest they managed to defeat "the Cree tribes" loyal to the United States in the Battle of "Horseshoe Bend", In the Mississippi Territory, which is now Central Alabama, US forces and their allies defeated the Indians, led by Major General Andrew Jackson, and then the great victory in the Battle of "Bladensburg"; which enabled them to control and burn Washington, D.C.

  • But the successive British rise must collapse, in September 1814 the British were defeated in the Battle of "Plattsburg" and thus the Americans were able to keep New York, that defeat was a signal that the next stage would be American, so the British government, under pressure from merchants, preferred truce and peace and the parties signed a peace treaty and things returned to pre-war.

End Of War And Treaty of Ghent

Treaty of Ghent

  • The parties discovered that the "Treaty of Ghent", according to which the war ended, did not change anything and what the parties signed was the appointment of committees that would later consider the problems of trade, fishing and the rights of the parties in the lakes.the treaty did not touch on the actions of Britain, which was the biggest motive behind this war. for the second time, the poverty of communication channels leads to disaster.

  • For six whole weeks, the commanders of the British ships in the Atlantic did not know about the signing of the agreement, The British ships continued to fire and their American counterpart exchanged shots, the British ships received a crushing defeat in January 1815 in "New Orleans" and the geographical conditions returned to what they were before the war, but the moral conditions of all parties did not. 

  • The United States celebrated the end of partisan hostilities, uniting behind American nationalism, while the Canadian provinces celebrated their victories over American troops and felt sincere loyalty to Britain and British hostility to the United States increased.

  • The strangeness of that war was not limited to the reason for its outbreak, but extended to the facts of its end.

  • The war ended and everyone agreed that the Indians were the only losers for losing the dream of creating their own state, but at the same time, each side declared itself victorious and historians in America, Canada, and Britain painted the battle and its results to ensure that each of them could identify himself as the one who was able to end the war in his favor.

Font Size
lines height